Classic sci-Fi stories about Mars often tell of bug-eyed Martians that invade the Earth for her precious resources. But the reality is that in the next twenty years — with all the technical and budgetary constraints — that the people will be the only one who intrudes on the Red planet. This year, NASA unveiled its latest plan for jump 300 million miles on the fourth from the Sun planet. The strategy envisages the creation of a lunar station in orbit of the moon, which will serve as a staging point for deep space missions to Mars. Manned Outpost Deep Space Gateway will be a launching platform for Deep Space Transport, a sort of version of the "enterprise" space Agency.
By the beginning of 2030-ies astronaut could leave the first footprint of man on another celestial object since 1969. He or she would need ingenious gadgets that will make it possible to stay on the cold, inhospitable planet far, far away from the nearest place that you can call "home".the
The fact that Mars has water, is no surprise. Surface flows on the red planet, which periodically leak and lead scientists to believe that liquid water really needs to take place. Last year NASA announced that it had also discovered a huge reservoir of ice, are frozen solid under the surface.
However, The first travelers to Mars are unlikely to have easy access to these water sources, or would be too costly to handle. Instead, future astronauts could use the type of odologies developed by scientists from the University of California at Berkeley.
This device working on solar energy, uses special metal-organic framework (MOF) to pull water from air humidity not lower than 20 percent. Research on this topic was published last month in the journal Science.
With this prototype managed to collect about three gallons of water from the air in 12 hours using only pound MOF. In the frame of combined metals such as magnesium with organic molecules, which are arranged in a rigid porous lint for the storage of gases and liquids.
"If the humidity on Mars is about 20 percent or more, do not understand why this device cannot work there," says Omar Yaga, co-author of the work, which was first invented MOF 20 years ago.
Although odological wonderful would be useful in arid areas on Earth, such a device is suitable and for completely dry Mars, where, despite the desert conditions, the relative humidity at night can reach 80-100% — which is more than enough to suck water out of the atmosphere.
The Yaga Team is already working on a cheaper and more efficient MOF for adsorption of water vapor. "Only a matter of time when this technology becomes economically competitive. This is an important step in the future direction of the water, I call it "personalized water".the
In our days we can print on a 3D printer that anyone — even the workers ovaries. The ability to produce parts and tools will definitely help the Martian colonists who are not able to take in all at once.
Not so long ago a group of northwestern University demonstrated the possibility of printing three-dimensional structures using Martian and lunar dust. More precisely, it is not real dust, but NASA approved imitate with the same size and shape. The researchers, headed by Ramil Shah used a process called 3D painting that uses the new paint, which informed her lab used to print things such as graphene and carbon nanotubes.
The Study was published earlier this year in Nature Scientific Reports.
3D-printed material consisting of 90% of dust by weight, very flexible and durable as rubber. It is possible "to cut, to fold, fold, and give any shape in front of a 3D painting". You can even make LEGO bricks.
"In places like other planets and moons with limited resources people will have to use what's available on this planet to live," says Shah, an assistant Professor in the school of engineering McCormick. "Our 3D paint really open up the possibility of printing of various functional or structural objects to create a habitat beyond the Earth".the
NASA is developing its own solution for buildings on the red planet. This is the needle.
Technically, the "Martian ice house" is a big inflatable tubular structure, which will include materials gathered on the planet and the prisoners in the ice shell.
The Idea of the inflatable part of the structure is that it is easy to transport. Why ice? Water protects from radiation and is one of the biggest dangers faced by people in space flights. Prolonged exposure may cause cancer or acute radiation sickness.
Alternatively, could be formed by a housing, laboratories and other buildings under the surface, forcing researchers to live like troglodytes. But Mars Ice Home offers the best perspective.
"All the materials we chose are translucent, so some portion of the daylight from outside can get inside and give you to understand that you are in the house, not a cave," says Kevin Kempton, principal investigator of the Ice project Mars Home NASA.the
It is Unclear whether science-fiction blockbuster "the Martian" increased sales of potatoes, but scientists are developing a complex plant self-sustaining farms that will provide future astronauts with fresh fruit and vegetables.
For Example, a joint project of NASA, the University of Arizona and private entities — bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) submitted a hydroponic plant chamber, which does not require soil (or, what is better, human feces) for the production of food.
The closed loop System begins with water enriched with nutrients. Feed water supports the root system of plants. System simultaneously and is beneficial to plants and people, since the second emit carbon dioxide, which is absorbed by vegetation. The plants in turn produce oxygen during photosynthesis.
"Our first big project started in 2004. We designed and built a camera to grow food at the South Pole (in Antarctica). It's still there and still works," says gene Giacomelli, Director of the Agricultural center managed environments and a former principal investigator of the project BLSS.
BLSS was presented in the "Biosphere 2", a closed ecological system, owned and managed by Australians.the
Obviously, more work is needed before astronauts begin to grow red delicious apples on the red planet. NASA and its commercial partners are still developing the next-generation rocket that will carry all the heavy operations of future missions. Currently underway and other projects to create housing units for deep space that will take humans to Mars.
Remain a serious obstacle. For example, the problem of radiation. Scientists, funded by ESA, has recently announced the release of a device that simulates space radiation for studying threats and developing solutions to mitigate its impact on people and equipment. Currently, aerospace medicine deals mostly with the study of how people remain healthy and stable under the conditions of deep space.
There is still the issue of stay away from home. If enough people are strong to survive in a long-term trip? The theme has also conducted research in the Antarctic conditions.
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