Such films and TV series as "blade Runner", "People" and "the Wild West", where we show the high-tech robots with no rights, can not disturb people with a conscience. Because they not only show our extremely aggressive attitude towards robots, they actually shame us as a species. We all used to think that we are better than those characters that we see on the screen, and when the time comes, we will make the right conclusions and act with reasonable machines with greater respect and dignity.
With every step of progress in robotics and the development of artificial intelligence we're getting closer to the day when machines will match human capabilities in every single aspect – intelligence, consciousness and emotions. When that happens, we have to solve is before us is item level of the refrigerator or identity. And should we give them the equivalent of human rights, freedoms and protection.
This issue is very vast and to understand it will not work even at all desire. It will have to consider and decide on from from many different points of view — ethics, sociology, law, neurobiology and the theory of AI. But for some reason now does not seem that all these parties come to a common, mutually acceptable conclusion.the
First, you need to recognize that we are already inclined towards morality, when we see robots, much like us. The more intellectually developed and "alive" look of the car, the more we want to believe that they like us, even if it is not.
As soon As the machine receives a basic human capacity, whether we like it or not, we have to look at them as a social equal and not just as a thing, like on someone's private property. The difficulty will be to our understanding of cognitive characteristics or traits if you want, which can be assessed in front of us the essence from the standpoint of morality and hence to consider the issue of social rights of the entity. Philosophers and ethicists are struggling with this problem for thousands of years.
"there are three most important ethical threshold value: the ability to experience pain and empathy, self-awareness and the ability to see things from the point of view of morality and to take appropriate decisions," — says sociologist, futurist, and head of the Institute for ethics and emerging technologies, James Hughes.
"the people if are lucky, all three of these undoubtedly important aspects develop sequentially and progressively. And what if from the point of view of machine intelligence will be assumed that the robot does not self-aware, not experiencing joy or pain, also has the right to be called a citizen? We need to find out whether it will take place".
It is Important to understand that intelligence, sensibility (the ability to perceive and feel things), consciousness and self-awareness (awareness of itself in contrast to another) are completely different things. Machines or algorithms can be just as smart (if not smarter) as people, but devoid of these three important components. Calculators, Siri, exchange algorithms, they are certainly smart, but they are not able to realize themselves, they are not able to feel, to emote, to feel the colors, the taste of the popcorn.
According to Hughes, self-realization can be associated with the vesting entity the minimum personal rights such as the right to be free, not a slave, the right to own interests in life, the right to growth and self-improvement. The acquisition of self-realization and morality (the ability to distinguish "what is good and what is bad" according to the moral principles of modern society) this entity should be granted full human rights: the right to conclude agreements, the right to own property, vote and so on.
"the Main value of the Enlightenment compels us to consider these features with the position of the equality of all in front of everyone, refuse radically conservative views that were commonly accepted before, and endowed them with rights, say, only people of a certain social, gender or regional affiliation," — said Hughes.
Obviously, our civilization has not yet achieved a high social goals, since we still can't sort out their own rights and are still trying to expand them.the
All men are persons but not all persons are human. Linda MacDonald-Glenn, bioethicist, University of California Monterey Bay and a lecturer at the Institute of bioethics of aldena Mar Medical center Albany says that in the law there are already precedents for entities that do not belong to the human race, considered as subjects of law. And that, in her opinion, a great achievement, as we thereby pave the way to open the possibility of giving the AI in the future private rights is equivalent to human.
"In the US, all corporations have the status of legal entity. In other countries, too, there are precedents in which try to recognize the interconnectedness and equality of all living things on this planet. For example, in New Zealand at the legislative level, all animals are considered sentient beings, and the government actively encourages the development of codes of welfare and ethical behaviour. Supreme court of India called the Ganges river and Yamuna "living beings" and gave them the status of separate legal persons".
In addition, in the US, like other countries, the subjects of extended rights for protection from incarceration, experimentation, and abuse are some species of animals, including great apes, elephants, whales and dolphins. But unlike the first two cases, where the person want to take of the Corporation and of the river, the question of animals does not seem to attempt the subjugation of the legal rules. Supporters of these proposals for support that is a real person, that is, of the individual, which can be characterized on the basis of certain cognitive (mental) abilities such as consciousness.
MacDonald-Glenn says that it is important to abandon the conservative look and stop to consider, whether animal or AI, is a simple soulless creatures and machines. Emotions are not a luxury, says bioethicist, and an integral part of rational thinking and the norms of social behavior. It is these characteristics and not the ability to count numbers, must play a decisive importance in solving the question of "who" or "what" should be eligible for moral evaluation.
In science, there is increasing evidence of the emotional predisposition in animals. The observation of dolphins and whales shows that they are able at least to show sadness, and the presence of spindle cells (interneurons, connecting distant neurons, and involved in complex processes that trigger social behavior) can say including that they are able to empathize. Scientists also describe the manifestation of different emotional actions apes and elephants. It is possible that conscious AI will also be able to acquire these emotional skills, which, of course, will significantly improve their moral status.
"limiting the spread of moral status only on those who think rationally can, and work with AI, but at the same time the idea moves in opposition to moral intuitions. After all, our society already protects those who are not able to think rationally: infants, people in coma, people with significant physical and mental challenges. Recently actively promoted laws to protect animals," — says McDonald, Glenn.
As for the question of who grant moral status, the MacDonald-Glenn, I agree with the English philosopher of the 18th century by Jeremy Bentham, who once said the following:
"the Question is not can they reason? Or can they speak? But, can they suffer?"
Of Course, not everyone agrees that human rights are extended to people even if these actors are able to exercise such powers as semireflexive emotions or behavior. Some thinkers say that only people should be given the right to participate in social relations and the whole world revolves around Homo sapiens, and all the rest of your games console, fridge, dog or Android companion is "everything else."
Lawyer, an American writer, and senior staff of the Institute's center for human exceptionalism Wesley J. Smith. Smith believes that we still have not received universal human rights, much of the brilliant pieces of iron and their rights to think even more prematurely.
"No car should never be considered even as a potential carrier of any rights" — says Smith.
"Even the most advanced machines still remain and will always remain machinery. It's not a living creature. It is not a living organism. The car will always be a set of programs that set of code, whether created by man or by another computer, or even self-programmed".
In his opinion, only people and human resources should be treated as individuals.
"we Have duties to animals
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