Last week, the world literally applauded: near star TRAPPIST-1 with a bunch of extra nice features. It would seem that seven solid planets, no word yet about life, aliens, or other surprises, and noise was all over the world. What's the salt? And it is this: this discovery was "an important step" in the direction of the search for extraterrestrial life in the Universe, says Amory Tried, astronomer from the University of Cambridge. And even if it's delicious new discovery turns out to be another sad impasse in the study, for a future science that will have far-reaching consequences.
Researchers have confirmed that at least two planets in the star system TRAPPIST-1 (the amount of which, when compared with our sun, would be a Golf ball, and the Sun — for basketball) are not completely covered by a thick layer of hydrogen so must have solid ground like Earth.
Although not mind-boggling, but it helps to exclude the possibility that these planets are just giant balls of gas, therefore, incapable of supporting life. Gas planets are often found in orbit of stars, and those seven planets are the exception to the General rule. And so, the researchers assume that potentially habitable planets in the Universe can be a lot more than anticipated.the
To the planet was friendly to life, she needs a special mixture of chemicals and variables. Not too hot, not too cold. Not too gaseous, not too firmly. Should be a relatively hard landscape, lots of light, perfect thickness, favorable temperate climate and water, which can accumulate in lakes, seas or oceans.
The Presence of ozone (which can be a by-product of oxygen produced by photosynthesizing plants) in the atmosphere forms a valuable protective layer from the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.
Scientists believe that you will find the combination of ozone and methane in the atmosphere at least three novoobrazovany planets to make them hospitable to life.
In addition, the presence of methane and oxygen together in the air one or several planets could indicate an invisible source of life, supplying these gases. "If you have a combination of ozone and methane in presence of carbon dioxide and water, the obvious explanation would be only one," says astronomer Michael Gillon at the University of liège in Belgium. "That's life".the
Star TRAPPIST-1 classified as "M-dwarf". Such stars are extremely common in the Universe and tend to be relatively small and dim. TRAPPIST-1 is also classified as "ultracold" star of the M-dwarf, so this is the most cool star, which only can be.
M-dwarfs is notorious that burn their nuclear fuel relatively slowly compared to the more hot, bright stars like our Sun — so they can shed some light on a neighboring planet for long periods of time, even billions of years.
(For comparison: the Sun is burning for 4.6 billion years and will eventually fade in the next 5 billion years).
Long lifespan means that complex biological life has more time to "evolve from swamp slime," says Dr. Seth Shostak, an astronomer at the the SETI Institute. "If you are looking for a challenging biology, the older it is, the better."the
This discovery has become a major victory for science, because even if these planets are unfavorable for life, this discovery will no doubt constitute the perfect scenario for checking a wide range of hypotheses.
The System TRAPPIST-1 you can compare "not only with the Earth and the other planets of our Solar system," says Michael Gillen, but "the same".
Since these planets are believed to have formed in the same protoplanetary disk (a rotating disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a newly formed star), scientists believe that a small, but significant differences in chemical composition and atmosphere of each planet will provide significant clues regarding the history and evolution of the planets.
This information then can be used for better analysis of the evolution of other planets, thereby increasing our own knowledge about the Universe.the
Novoandina system, most likely, will be a valuable model to extract data that will allow us to better understand planets and galaxies located further away, particularly in the context of search for life.
With the TRAPPIST-1, scientists will test their "fears and desires on the subject of other planets rotating near the very cold, very light M-dwarf stars," said Sara Seager, a planetary theorist at the Massachusetts Institute of technology.
In the best case, scientists will find evidence of life. In the worst case, that's fine too: maybe scientists will not be able to determine whether the oxygen is on one of the planets of the system TRAPPIST-1 life form or not. This is pretty good news. Seeger says that the only disadvantage is that we need more time to find the source.the
Although scientists have long assumed that in the Universe there are many planets of earth size, until they discovered a system TRAPPIST-1, these unique planets were considered as small and distant. Now, when I opened this, and so close to our own, the simplest laws of probability say that in the Universe a lot more of these systems than previously thought.
In addition, the Universe will be and more stars of type M-dwarf with similar properties than previously thought. So, we will have more chances to find extraterrestrial life, scientists who are looking for radio signals sent by alien life forms could all the time look for is not there.the
Although most of the credit to this discovery goes to the men and women who worked on this project for months, the proportion of respect is to show to the incredibly powerful and cool the space telescope Spitzer, which made the discovery.
Launched in 2003, this infrared space telescope caught and passed the amazing mysteries of the cosmos for the past 14 years traveling in a heliocentric orbit.
Armed with the infrared array camera, infrared spectrograph and multiband photometer, the telescope can capture impressive images with colorful detail. Among his discoveries is the first light emitted by exoplanets, which we were able to find and witness.
Every planet in the system of TRAPPIST-1 failed to detect because of the small dips in the light of the TRAPPIST-1. These blackout occurred whenever one of the planets passed in front of the face of the star, and the giant lens of a telescope passed this light is NASA, where it was analyzed by estimating the size and mass of each star.the
The universe, in all its baggy glory, no doubt, contains many planets much like the planets in the system TRAPPIST-1. However, we rarely find a planet so close to us.
40 light years — it is certainly not nonsense, but not outland. Using modern technology, it would take 44 million years to travel a distance of 400 trillion miles from Earth. But on a cosmic scale 40 light years — it is very small, so scientists can draw conclusions about our Solar system and the planetary systems that are difficult to "see" if you take the basis system data, TRAPPIST-1.
Ideally, the proximity of the system TRAPPIST-1 to Earth will allow scientists to better understand how the dwarf planets, asteroids, satellites, comets and circumstellar disks are formed and interact with each other.the
In many ways, because this discovery will help us understand other planets in the Universe, it will also help us to understand their atmosphere, which is logical.
It is Important to remember that this is the first planet of earth's size that have been discovered orbiting a particular star at the right distance. This means that their atmosphere will provide us with important information about other planets such as these, which, in turn, will allow us to better analyze the chemical signature that leaves water, methane, oxygen, ozone, and other components in the planet's atmosphere.
System TRAPPIS-1 provides "one of the best opportunities for the next decade to study the atmospheres of planets around earth's size," says Nicole Lewis, a Research astronomer of the Institute for space telescope in Baltimore, Maryland.
Scientists also will study the temperature and pressure on the surface of planets that will be very helpful in determining their suitability for life.the
The search for signs of extraterrestrial life forms on distant planets or other celestial bodies, scientists almost all begin with a simple test: is there, could there be water on this body?
And although some planets like Mars and Venus, believed to have once had liquid water on the surface, the lack of ozone with other protective elements leads scientists to believe that all the life that could have formed, are already dead — because it can not survive the solar and cosmic rays, sterilizing planetary surface.
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