the mystery of the work of the atom still remains unsolved.
No one actually knows what processes happen inside . The only thing known — is that the electrons running around orbitals in the outer shell of the atom, forming a large amount of empty space in the center of which is a core of protons and neutrons. Together, protons and neutrons give the atom the unique properties that define further certain of the quality of the substance, which may be either oxygen or hydrogen, and iron, or xenon. According to an article published on the portal currently remains unknown what exactly how protons and neutrons behave within the atom. In addition, the experiments showed that protons and neutrons located inside the nucleus, seem to be much more than they really are. What accounts for such properties and how they can be applied in practice?
As you may know, the protons and neutrons located within the atom, consist of tiny particles called quarks, the interactions between them are so strong that they can not deform no external power. Gerald Miller, a nuclear physicist from the University of Washington believes that the nucleons, which are formed by the fusion of protons and neutrons, have within themselves a very small amount of energy. When, in 1983, physicists from the European organization for nuclear research () I noticed that the beams of electrons are repelled from iron than from free protons way, they came to the conclusion that the problem size causes the protons and neutrons in heavy nuclei act as if they have much larger sizes. This phenomenon was called the EMC effect in honor of the group, who accidentally found him.
Quarks — the smallest detected particles in the Universe
While the quarks — special particles that make up the nucleons interact with each other within individual protons and neutrons, quarks in different protons and neutrons, can not as actively interact with each other. However, due to the fact that about 20% of nucleons in the nucleus is virtually out of their orbitals, the interaction between them is much more energetically than usual. This phenomenon occurs because the quarks are able to penetrate the walls of the nucleons, causing the destruction of the walls inside individual protons and neutrons.
Despite the fact that this theory of interactions sounds very plausible, experts believe that the hypothesis is not until the end solves the problem , offering to replace it with so-called quantum chromodynamics or system of rules governing the behavior of quarks. The difficulty in this task lies in the low level of modern technology, which make extremely difficult the chromodynamic calculations necessary to confirm the theory.
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However, the effect of EMC can now help to clarify some important issues of modern quantum physics. Will the introduction of supercomputers to solve the problem of an atom? Perhaps, time will tell.
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