What causes static electricity?

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2019-12-24 13:40:08

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What causes static electricity?

Manifestations of static electricity can often be found in ordinary life.

Perhaps on the planet, there is no person who is not faced with the manifestation of static electricity in everyday life: source may be wool sweater, and a TV, and even a plastic comb, combing which hair stand “on end”. However, if there is a scientific explanation for such an unusual process and whether it can be usefully applied in everyday life?

What is static electricity?

The existence was known several thousand years ago when Greek philosopher and mathematician Thales of Miletus was the first who was able to describe in detail the manifestations of a static charge. However, only modern researchers working at the nanoscale, has made a huge step forward in the quest for understanding why the friction of two surfaces against each other can lead to the occurrence of a current.

No matter how smoothly it may look like one or the other surface, with a certain approximation, even on the smooth structure it is possible to notice irregularities and roughness. Every surface, from balloons to fiber such as wool or hair, covered with microscopic pits, which are responsible for the occurrence of static electricity. Christopher Mizzi, doctoral student in materials science and engineering at northwestern University of Illinois, proves that all objects in the Universe can be compared to our planet, which, although it seems absolutely smooth blue ball from space, in reality, is a place with extremely varied landscape.

According to an article published on the portal , it is the presence of the roughness elements of the “landscape” of the material, coupled with their active interaction with each other, the friction creates the same type of energy that official science is called triboelectricity.

Static electricity — one of the most common types of energy in nature

One of the most unusual qualities of static electricity is the ease of its production using materials that limit the electricity and known to mankind as insulators. The most common insulators on Earth are considered as rubber, wool and hair, which does not allow charged electrons to move on, but suppress them. However, static electricity occurs and where the field in the insulators RUB against each other, creating interference with the electron clouds. Because the electrons in insulators cannot move easily, this friction can distort the electron clouds, deforming them and giving them an asymmetrical shape. So, in some circumstances, the resulting form of the electron cloud can unevenly distribute the stress across the surface of the material. In everyday life this phenomenon can clearly be manifested if you decide to go in woolen socks across the carpet. The friction materials in this case will be forced to bend roughness on both active surfaces by deforming the electron cloud and causing the small difference in voltage that can occur when you touch the door handle or to another person.

The study's Authors believe that the newfound understanding about work may contribute to the development of a new kind of useful tissue which can produce friction energy to recharge your mobile devices and other small equipment. In addition, it is the static electricity may help to create safe working environments with the best elimination of fires due to the presence of fine dust in the premises.

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