As a transplanted lungs, and who needs it?

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2020-04-17 19:40:16

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As a transplanted lungs, and who needs it?

Nowadays it is so difficult to surprise someone with organ transplantation, many even have friends who have gone through it. In extreme cases, this will be the so-called ”friends of friends”. I mean that such operations have become so commonplace that it is possible to transplant almost any organ. The main thing is to find the right donor and wait for the queue. More a matter of technique. Of course, people with problems are now very many and not everyone will be able to get the coveted body, but a time. Someone's heart, someone a kidney, some liver, and someone light. The lung transplant process is very complex and the percentage of successful operations is lower than we would like. Let's talk about it and understand in General, how do such operations.

What is lung transplantation

Lung Transplant — this operation, which gives the opportunity to transplant new lungs to a man if his lungs that something is wrong. If to speak more scientifically, the lung transplantation is defined as follows.

Currently, only such a radical intervention can make human life better and more long, if he has serious damage to the body. Thus, it is very difficult and resorted to only in extreme cases, when other chances anymore.

The Main restriction after such operations is that the patient had for a long time, and then the rest of your life, take immunosuppressive drugs. Sometimes you have to actively use the mask with the oxygen tank, but usually not reach up to this and after some time, the patients return to relatively normal life.

How to make a lung transplant

The transplant of the lungs is not much different from any other operation related to transplantation. Importantly, the whole team worked smoothly and very quickly. After the thorax has been opened by the surgeon, the doctors have not much time. The sooner they do, the better.

Here are the lungs. Contrary to popular belief, they come in different shapes.

Especially it is crucial to repair all the damage to the loss of blood was minimal. And yet, as the operation is close to his heart, to do everything necessary very carefully. Despite the fact that the heart stops during surgery, it is still necessary not to damage.

However, sometimes the lungs and heart change, if I may say so, complex. There is even a special operation. Compatibility problems usually does not happen, if the organs are taken from the same donor.

This operation more difficult and longer, but sometimes allows you to solve a number of problems, not just those associated with lung diseases.

Who needs a lung transplant

It is Logical to assume that the transplant needed by one who does not help other treatment, and we need some more serious intervention.

Among the main indications are diseases such as emphysema. The majority of cases — roughly a third.

There are other indications for transplantation, for example: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (20.8 percent); cystic fibrosis (15,9 %); α1-antitripsina failure (7,1 %); primary pulmonary hypertension (or 3.3 %). There are still other diseases, but too many of them and their share in total accounts for the remainder assignment operation.

The Decision to transplant is taken each time a group of doctors on the basis of how the patient's decreased quality of life (desired products, tanks, ventilation). A prerequisite is that must be exhausted all medical treatment options.

After surgery, the patient undergoes a long rehabilitation, first in the hospital and then home.

Usually have to wait for your donor to match correctly. Sometimes the waiting period is longer than the lifetime of the patient. In this case, the queue may slightly move and patients who are in critical condition and can't wait to receive organs sooner.

Who cannot be transplanted lungs

In addition to indications for transplant, there are contra-indications. Not so much, but if they are, the patient is likely to refuse transplantation. However, there are exceptions. The cases of exception referred to as relative contraindications. When you certainly can't do the operation — absolute.

Absolute contraindications most often include cases where the patient is required to take immunosuppressive drugs. When they can cause more serious diseases in and of themselves to cause death.

For Example, these absolute contraindications include:

the
    the
  • malignant tumors (now or moved within the last 5 years)
  • the
  • infectious diseases, primarily HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C
  • the
  • acute or chronic diseases of other organs and systems of the body (heart failure, liver failure, etc.)
    drug addiction, alcoholism, Smoking
  • the
  • mental state, notto achieve productive contact with a doctor
  • the
  • mental illness

With relative contraindications, the operation is possible, but often she or simply do not make sense, or may carry risks that exceed the average for other patients. These include:

the
    the
  • age more than 65 years
  • the
  • low physical endurance, inability to perform simple physical exercises
  • the
  • serious deviations from the norm of body mass index
  • the
  • the defeat of the respiratory tract by microbes or fungi that are immune to drugs.

In other cases, the operation is possible, but still every time the decision is made individually based on the decision of the doctor or the medical Commission.

This is Niki Lauda. Austrian racing driver, three-time F1 champion who nearly burned alive in the cockpit of a wrecked Ferrari. He transplanted a lung in almost 70 years. And this is possible.

When did the first transplant lungs?

Not counting the artisanal operations and those that were not documented, we can say that the first lung transplant was performed in 1946 by Vladimir Demihov. The result of the operation proved just what is possible technically. It was held at the dog and the patient did not survive due to the fact that the authority has rejected.

Vladimir Demikhov. Sometimes his methods were macabre, but he did a lot for Soviet and world of transplantation.

The Man's lungs for the first time transplanted on 11 June 1963. Did James hardy of University of Mississippi. However, the result can be called only conditionally successful, as the patient died after two and a half weeks due to kidney failure.

Many years of operation is also failed and the patients died within a very short time after surgery. This occurred before 1978, has not yet appeared a heart-lung machine and more strong drugs that helped during the operation and .

Despite the fact that technically, people survived before this, the first truly successful operation is a lung transplant, and heart by Dr. Bruce Reitz of Stanford University in 1981. It made the woman from a serious lung disease.

Statistics of lung transplants

In the framework of the world health organization there is a structure, which is responsible for the accounting and conventional management of the world of transplantation. Some call it the International society of transplantation.

According to the statistics of the society per year is about 3,000 transplants are easy. It's not as small as could be, but significantly less than I would like, because many patients simply are not waiting for their turn.

For light, as for other organs should be constantly watched.

There are statistics of successful operations. According to her, the five-year survival rate is more than 50 percent. This means that more than half of the people who had the surgery, after living it for more than 5 years. The median survival of 5.4 years.

How much does a lung transplant

The Price for a lung transplant is not quite correct to consider separately. The surgery usually involves a complex treatment, which consists of a preparatory process, medication, surgery itself, rehabilitation, and other unplanned expenses.

If to speak about the operation itself, the cost varies greatly from country to country and averages about 95 000 dollars.

do you Need a lung transplant patients with coronavirus

The coronavirus can lead to diseases that require lung transplant. However, there is information that the virus, causing inflammation, can irrevocably damage up to 20 percent of lungs. Even if .

look like the lungs of a patient with a coronavirus.

Usually, even if such damages are not required a lung transplant. But some of the inflammation and developed pneumonia may lead to the need for such operations. However, this probability is very low. At least not yet. In General, the probability to die from the effects of pneumonia there is and they are in the world kills more people than from myocardial infarction. Such deaths are not caused by the pneumonia and septic shock, which affects other organs and systems.

In any case, don't get too relaxed attitude to the probability of getting sick. Even without such extreme cases, the consequences can still be severe. So just take care of yourself!

Light is very important for our body.

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