Yuri Gagarin will forever inscribed his name in historical records as the man who first saw our planet from space. The launch of the spacecraft "Vostok-1" was held from the Baikonur cosmodrome in 9 hours 7 minutes, Moscow time on 12 April 1961. Since that time, 12 April, is traditionally celebrated the Day of cosmonautics. After the first flight of man into space, accompanied by problems in preparation, and during execution, Yuri Gagarin gained world fame and has visited with official visits to more than 30 foreign countries. In many countries, towns and streets were named after the famous Soviet astronaut. Today the hero is truly on a planetary scale would have turned 85 years old.
Remember the brightest and most interesting events from the history of the preparation and implementation of sending the first man into space.the
In the selection of the title of the first cosmonaut Gagarin in addition to got 19 candidates. They were all very experienced pilots of jet fighters. In the final list were three candidates: Gherman Titov, Yuri Garanin and Grigory Nelyubov. Yuri Gagarin was chosen from among them almost by accident. Titov was Gagarin is much better prepared, but the choice of the latter was due to political reasons: Gagarin considered a "real Russian man", it was described as a simple and open person. Thus, a significant role in the candidate selection played by the charisma of the man. Titov and Nelyubov was chosen as the understudy Gagarin and they accompanied him to the spacecraft.the
Two days before the flight, Gagarin wrote a farewell a farewell a letter to the wife in case a catastrophe occurs:
"Hello, my dear, dearly beloved valechka, Helen and Tick! I decided now to write a few lines to share with you and share together the joy and happiness that I had today. Today, the government Commission decided to send me into space first. You know, dear Valya, I want you were pleased with me. The common man was entrusted with such a large state task — to pave the first road to space! Is it possible to dream big? Because this is history, this is a new era! The next day I should start. You are going to do their business.
Very large task fell on my shoulders. I would like it to spend a little time with you, to talk to you. But, alas, you are far. Nevertheless, I always feel you close to me. The technique I trust completely. It should not fail. But the fact is that the blue man falls and breaks his neck. Here, too, something can happen. But I still don't believe it. Well, if that happens, then I ask you first of all you, Valya, not to kill with grief. After all, life is life, and no one is guaranteed that it will not be crushed by the machine.
Take Care, please, our girls love them like I do. Grow from them, please do not shirkers, not Mama's daughters, and these people who bumps life would not be terrible. Grow up people, worthy of the new society — communism. This will help you state. Well, to arrange his personal life, as conscience tells you, as you see fit. No obligation, I do not impose upon you, and do not have the right to do.
Something too mournful letter obtained. I myself don't believe it. I hope that this letter you will never see, and I would be ashamed of myself for this momentary weakness. But if something happens, you have to know everything to the end. I still lived honestly, truthfully, for the benefit of the people, though it was small. Once in the childhood I read the words of V. P. Chkalov: "If to be, be the first." So I try it and I will be until the end. Want valechka, to dedicate this flight to people of a new society, communism, in which we are already entering our great Motherland, to our science. I hope that in a few days we'll be together again, be happy. The valechka, please, don't forget my parents, if possible, help in anything. Tell them I said Hello, and forgive me for what they didn't know anything, but they are not supposed to know. Well, it seems, and all. Goodbye, my dear. Tightly you hug and kiss, Hey your dad and Yura. 10.04.61 G."
The First launch was successful. The letter is then not required. It'll give the wife of the first cosmonaut of the Earth after 7 years, after the crash on 27 March 1968 that killed Yuri Gagarin.
Before the first sending Gagarin into space was recorded three appeals "the first cosmonaut to the Soviet people". The first recorded Gagarin, the other two – Titov, Nelyubov. Three informational messages prepared and the Agency TASS. In one say about the first successful flight of man into space, the second was written for the unsuccessful landing of the astronaut, and the third was reported about the disaster. The first two messages in this case also, fortunately, remained unclaimed.the
However, the preparation of the first manned flight into space was made literally from scratch. The USSR with all forces tried to overtake the United States and the first to launch a man into near-earth space, but in most aspects of the preparation of the country was at very high risk. For example, used for the launch of "Vostok-1" initially wasn't even intended for manned flights. The unit was provided a copy of the intelligence complex "Zenit-2". To install the seat for the astronaut from the apparatus and removed part of the photo and radio equipment. The rush – be the first even led to several emergency,which could lead to failure of the mission and the death of the cosmonaut.
The First happened a day before the start. It turned out that the total weight of the spacecraft with Gagarin in a space suit on 14 kg more than it. In this case, there was a risk of the withdrawal of the device into the desired orbit. Soviet engineers approached the problem in a highly original way — cut off part of the cables and sensors that are considered optional. But this is all the problem is not resolved.
Just an hour before the start it became clear that Luke's "East 1" is closed tightly. The sensor on the hatch is not given the required signal integrity of the device. The engineers quickly decided that the case in faulty contact. As the launch was only a matter of minutes, this issue could lead to the postponement of the launch. Lead designer of "Vostok-1" Oleg Ivanovsky with other engineers with the speed of modern mechanics "Formulas-1" in seconds 30 unscrewed the screws on the ship and, adjusting the sensor, re-tighten all put back in order. After this leak test was successful. Start to endure did not.the
Flight of the spacecraft "Vostok-1" with the first cosmonaut took place in a fully automatic mode. This is explained by the fact that psychologists could not give assurances on whether the astronaut to sustain a long stay in weightlessness. It was admitted that Gagarin may lose control and want to keep the machine manually. At the same time, to deprive the astronaut the ability to control the vehicle manually, thus, in the case of serious unforeseen circumstances, putting it before the need to rely only on electronics, the launch team decided not to. In the most extreme case the astronaut gave a special code which allowed to activate manual control of the ship. Code was in a sealed envelope. Psychologists believed that to correctly read and type in this code, the astronaut will only be able being of sound mind. And yet, just before the launch, Gagarin said this code.the
About the words spoken by Gagarin in the final stages of the flight, for a long time preferred not to write: "I'm burning, farewell, comrades!".
At the time nobody had a clear idea of how to pass the descent of the spacecraft through the dense salt atmosphere. Seeing in the window a fire engulfed the hull of a ship as a result of its friction of the atmosphere, Gagarin suggested that the ship was actually on fire and so — it was his last seconds of life. The first impressive sight that saw Gagarin. that flew into space after him, was ready for such "ordinary" time of the flight.the
On the spacecraft "Vostok" was not provided for the landing of astronauts inside the lander, as it had no heatshield, which provide a safe landing. In addition, experts were afraid of the "brewing" of the hatch when exposed to high temperature (3-5 thousand degrees) in the dense layers of the atmosphere. By the way, the hull of a ship «East-1» do strongly partially melted. At an altitude of 7 kilometers above the earth's surface in accordance with the flight plan Gagarin ejected, after which the capsule and the astronaut began to descend on parachutes separately.the
Due to problems in the braking system of the ship "Vostok-1" Gagarin landed not in the originally planned area in the region of the Baikonur cosmodrome, and 1000 km to the West, in the Saratov region, nearby to Engels, to the North-West from the village of Smelovka.
The Landing of the first cosmonaut could also end tragically. After ejection and disconnection of the duct lander in oxygen in a pressurized spacesuit Gagarin to go was immediately. The problem was in the valve air supply. The last problem in this flight was the landing. The risk was that Gagarin would end up in the water of the Volga. The cosmonaut helped a good preflight preparation. With the help of parachute sling he went away from the river and landed 2 miles from shore.the
Perhaps one of the most memorable events connected with Gagarin after his successful space flight, was the case with laces. Initially nobody planned Gagarin solemn meeting in Moscow with the participation of the government. Decided at the last moment, the First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR Nikita Khrushchev. For Gagarin to Kuibyshev flew the plane Il-18.
At the airport "Vnukovo" Yuri Gagarin was expecting a Grand reception. A huge crowd of people, journalists. The plane taxied to the main airport building. Lowered a ladder… And behold, the world's first cosmonaut, a Soviet man, major Yuri Gagarin is walking tall on the red carpet from the plane to a set at the edge of the airfield government platform. The show is broadcasted in live television. Behind him, millions of people watch. And here – my Shoe's untied!
This item only added to people's love for Gagarin. Meanwhile, Sergei Khrushchev, son of Nikita Khrushchev, who was present at the ceremony, says that the laces Gagarin was OK. Soviet hero of space lift for socks. Earlier socks were made without rubber bands, and the calves wore the suspenders to the socks did not slip. Gagarin was on one leg, unhooked the elastic, iron buckle hit him on the leg.the
The Famous footage of the shooting of the negotiation between being in the cockpit of spaceship "Vostok-1" with Yuri Gagarin and chief designer of the Soviet space industry Sergei Korolev was simulated. It was prepared much later since the first human flight into space. However, to blame the participants in historical events is hardly worth – while to really start Gagarin people were really not up to any filming. Later the missing chronicle decided to recreate, asking Gagarin and Korolev to repeat the same words that were said by them on 12 April 1961.
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