is There any reason to use the polygraph from the standpoint of science?
You always hear about lie detectors in films, TV series, and in the course of police investigations, but sometimes even in our country the person applying for work in one way or another «serious» companies must undergo a polygraph test. The purpose of a polygraph – aka a lie detector – is to understand whether the person speaks the truth or not answering certain questions. In Russia, the use of a polygraph is legal since 1975, but the official use of the instrument received in the 90-ies of the last century. But how reasonable the use of such technology, for the disclosure of murders, rapes, robberies, military interrogations?
When a person passes a polygraph test, to it are attached four to six sensors. the polygraph — is a machine in which multiple («Poly») the signals from the sensors are recorded in graphs («Graph») on the monitor screen or on paper, depending on how you value the truth. The sensors usually record variables such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. Cuff blood pressure measures as blood pressure and heart rate.
Two tubes, one around the subject's chest and a second around the abdomen measure breathing rate (air pressure in the tubes changes as the breathing). The electrodes, called galvanometers, which are connected to the fingertips measure perspiration. Let me remind you that sweat is a good conductor of electric current because it consists of water and dissolved mineral salts, as well as some products of metabolism. As the sweat level is increased, the electric current flows through the electrodes more freely. a lie Detector captures these physiological reactions during questioning. Sometimes polygraph records such things as the movement of the hands and feet.
starts with three or four simple questions to set the norm signal for each person. Then ask the real questions, check the polygraph, and all signals of the human body are recorded. The examiner develops an individual test system, containing from 100 to 200 questions. of Approximately 35-50 questions are intended to find out the answer to one question. during and after the test, the polygraph examiner can look at the charts and how to change indicators on any of the questions. It is believed that a significant change (eg, increased heartbeat, increased blood pressure, increased perspiration) indicates that the person is lying.
the polygraph is flawed and it can be easily fooled.
In fact, the lie detectors in a primitive form existed for long time. Ancient Indians determined whether the person speaks the truth, instructing him to spit out a mouth full of rice on the sheet. The person who is telling the truth — spit you out without all the grains; and the one who will lie, rice will get stuck in your mouth. This process presumably depended on the dryness of the mouth, which is a physiological factor associated with lying.
The Creator of the polygraph, the cardiologist sir James Mackenzie invented this miracle in 1906 and used it purely for medical research. In 1921, a student of Harvard University William M. Marston — American psychologist and author of the comic book “Wonder woman”, invented the modern polygraph. And after 86 years, the lie detector is digitized. This increased its accuracy and efficiency in the definition of a lie. Most experts generally hold the view that the test of the digital polygraph gives 97% accuracy. However, any results with a confidence of 99.9% is not – it is just a publicity stunt of some polygraph examiners who want to get order at any cost. the Real, a fair percentage of the result is between 85% and 97%.
Most researchers do not believe the polygraph is a reliable way to know the truth
When a well-trained examiner uses a polygraph, it can detect lying with high accuracy. However, as the interpretation of expert subjective and different people react differently to lying, a polygraph test is not perfect and the lie detector can be fooled. Therefore, the discussion about the need for the use of the polygraph does not cease to this day, and its parties take diametrically opposed positions.
Turns Out, the world was split into supporters and opponents of the polygraph. Although scientists agree that polygraphs are able to measure bodily changes, but disagree about whether polygraphs and other lie detectors to accurately distinguish truth from falsehood. Opponents of thisthe hypotheses claim that the polygraph test detects bodily changes associated with anxiety, but because none of them is a reliable way to recognize a lie. Besides, polygraph tests take a variety of forms and are used by different testers in different ways.
Mystery, instead of solid scientific foundations surrounding the detectors, in itself explains a lot and tells about the value of this device.the
Among the factors that affect the results of polygraph tests are the following:the
In General, the lie detector is not a robust way to know the truth. Therefore, many courts refuse to use the results obtained in the course of the interrogation the polygraph as evidence. At the same time, lie detectors are constantly evolving, and engineers are trying to find other ways to determine reliably whether the person in questions honestly. Did you ever have a polygraph test? Share your story in the comments and members
Air leak occurs in Russian station module Inside the International Space Station live astronauts from different countries and all of them need oxygen. The air needed for the life of the crew is produced by special equipment, but the tightness of the ...
Awareness of one's own mortality can be a liberating and awakening experience How do you feel about the idea of death? How often do you think about it and what emotions do you feel? Many of us have been pondering these questions lately. The pandemic ...
New photo of Jupiter taken by the Hubble Telescope Jupiter is considered the largest planet in the solar system. It mainly consists of a huge amount of hydrogen and helium, so it has a much lower density than many other planets. Most of all, Jupiter ...
it's hard To believe, but the ancestors of the crocodiles looked like this Today's crocodiles live in tropical regions of Asia, Africa, Australia and North and South America, but over 200 million years of existence on Earth they h...
multi-Colored micro-plastic particles and rain falls in protected areas In 1855, the English Metallurgist and inventor Alexander Parkes got the first plastic, which gave the name to parkesine (celluloid). 52 years later, the Belgi...
Silver can be called one of the most natural antibiotics Silver is considered to be one of the most sought after metals on the planet. Besides the fact that it is often used in the jewelry industry, this metal is also used in the ...