What are the different types of metals and alloys?

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2020-06-12 02:20:16

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What are the different types of metals and alloys?

today there are more than 90 types of metals and they are used in various fields

Metals are everywhere around us: they made their cars, timber frame houses, appliances, phones and many other inventions of humanity. But how much do we know about them? The first thing you need to know about metals is that they are divided into black and color. Of these types of metals are separated by several large groups, depending on their properties. Let's move on to the specifics. In this article we will briefly look at how the metals are separated in different groups and in which industries they apply.

Characteristics of metals

Metal is a group of more than 90 simple substances out . In nature, they are rarely found in pure form, so they are often extracted from ore. The so-called mineral that is a compound of several chemical components like minerals and most metals. Metals typical of several properties on which they are divided by groups:

the
    the
  • hardness — resistance to the penetration of the material of another, more solid body;
  • the
  • strength — resistance to damage under the influence of external load;
  • the
  • elasticity — change the shape of the material under the influence of external forces and restore it after these forces cease to affect it;
  • the
  • plasticity — change the shape of the material under external influences, is stable even after elimination of this effect;
  • the
  • durability — maintaining good appearance and physical properties of the material after friction;
  • the
  • viscosity — the ability of a material to stretch under the influence of external forces;
  • the
  • fatigue — the property of a material to withstand repeated load;
  • the
  • heat resistance — the resistance to oxidative processes when heated to high temperatures.

ferrous metals

Three key features of ferrous metals: high density, high melting point and a dark color. As with black metal in its pure form is difficult to work with, they add alloying components — impurities to change the physical and chemical properties of the basic material.

to give the black metal form, they are first heated to high temperatures, and then pressed

Ferrous metals are divided into 5 subgroups:

the

Iron metals

These include cobalt, Nickel and manganese. They are used as additives to iron — most often, alloys are strong steel that is used in the manufacture of various parts for large equipment, knives and other products.

made From durable steel and beautiful knives and kitchen

the

Refractory metals

This subgroup includes niobium, molybdenum, tungsten and rhenium. Their common feature is that Oh higher melting point than iron — i.e., is more than 1539 degrees Celsius. Of them, as a rule, manufactured parts for the equipment and the filament for different bulbs.

the filament in the bulb, usually made of tungsten.

the

Uranium metals

This group includes uranium, California and other radioactive metals. They are used to .

In ancient times, uranium was used for the manufacture of yellow ware

the

Rare earth metals

Included In this classification laptan, praseodymium, neodymium and other metals. They are all silvery-white in color and have virtually identical chemical properties. The name rare earth materials was because they are hard to find in the earth's crust. They are used in the nuclear industry and mechanical engineering. For example, from rare earth metals it is possible to create glass that do not pass through the ultraviolet rays.

a Rare earth element scandium is used in mercury-gas lamps

the

Alkaline earth metals

This sub-group consists of beryllium, magnesium, calcium, radium and other metals. They painted nature in a grey color and at room temperature always remain in the solid state. In pure form they are almost never used, except nuclear reactors.

Alkaline earth element, beryllium is used for the manufacture of x-ray tubes, through which the rays come out

base metals

Non-ferrous metals are more expensive than black, because it is more popular in the world. They are needed in the manufacture of automobiles, construction of houses and in the field of high technologies — they are the key materials in the manufacture of smartphones and other electronics. In construction they are needed for the manufacture of all kinds of valves, beams, angles and so on.

Iron and its alloys are to black metal, and all the rest is non-ferrous metals

Non-ferrous metals can be divided into three groups:

the

Heavy metals

The Most outstanding representatives of this category of non-ferrous metals are consideredcopper, brass and bronze. The most popular among them use copper because it is an excellent conductor of electric current and is widely used in electronics. Brass made various wires, bearings and other metal elements. Bronze often make monuments because she is not afraid of rain, snow and mechanical damage.

a Few years ago, researchers found that

the

Light metals

The Most popular light metals, aluminium, magnesium and titanium. Their pretty easy to melt, and they are lighter than ferrous metals. Thanks corrosion resistance, high ductility and low weight, aluminium is widely used in the construction of airplanes and cars. Magnesium is widely used in housings for various equipment, ranging from cameras and ending with the engines. Titanium has a high strength and light weight, so is used in the manufacture of space rockets.

In the air instantly covered with aluminum foil, which protects it from corrosion

the

precious metals

To the noble metals include gold, silver and platinum. Due to the complexity of production and their beauty, they are considered the most expensive varieties of metals. Their value is constantly changing, and you can buy them in banks, thus giving them their money. Also, noble metals are widely used in jewelry. Of them are made rings, bracelets and other jewelry.

About aluminium can be found in the material Pro

alloys

Alloys call materials that consist of two or more metal components. As a rule, the alloys consist of the basics, which includes several metals, and the so-called alloying elements — they are necessary to give the alloy softness, elasticity and other properties. Most often in the industry apply a mixture using iron and aluminum, but generally there are more than 5 hundred varieties of alloys.

the majority of metals, with whom we interact — is an alloy

The Alloys are divided into two types: cast and powder. the cast alloys are obtained by mixing the molten components. And powder method alloys involves the pressing of powders of several metals and their subsequent sintering at high temperatures.

From metal alloys produced today is almost all the way up benches.

Use the alloys are divided into structural, tool and special. the Structural alloys is intended for manufacturing of details of cars. From tool alloys, as you can tell from the title, make tools — for example, different hammers and knives. And special alloys are used for the manufacture of parts of special purpose — for example, to prevent friction.

As you can see, metals are very many and they strongly differ from each other. On the subject of metals, I also recommend to read material in which I talked about the different types of this material. Here do you know how called is the rarest metal on our planet and how to obtain it?

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