See Harrier demonstrates how he may hang in one place
Most Likely, you saw in the movie, a documentary chronicle or technical video, as the plane begins to buzz, it starts to scatter dust and other debris, after that it slightly raised above . He begins to climb higher and higher, when at the height of a few tens of meters, he gradually begins to ”to start” gaining speed and already flies like a regular plane. Let us examine how this happens, what are the advantages and disadvantages of these machines. Of course, do not forget about their history and the most interesting representatives.
First, you should understand that the generally vertical take-off. In fact, such a term is more folk than technical. Even logically, if the aircraft vertically took off, so he should be able to sit upright. Hence the full name — the Aircraft with Vertical Takeoff and Landing. Abbreviated form it is written as a VTOL aircraft. In the foreign texts found in the reduction of the VTOL (in English: Vertical Take-Off and Landing). Thus, vertical take-off and landing does not preclude regular run on the strip. Rare exceptions in history were, but they were in the past projects.
Can I ask why not call the aircraft with vertical takeoff/landing? The principal difference is that the plane's lifting force during the basic movement is created by rolling the wing in the airflow. In the case of a helicopter, the lifting force is achieved by the spinning propeller. If he stops, maybe the helicopter will be able to make a relatively soft landing in autorotation, but will not be able to plan. In the case of aircraft, there is even a separate direction of aircraft without engines. They are called gliders take to the air with the tow plane and I can spend hours planning over the terrain like a paper airplane. In case of engine failure in a helicopter, the only way is down, and the aircraft how to fly and land. Such cases were more than once.
Vivid demonstration of the principle of a wing lifting force
As we have agreed above, VTOL aircraft are, primarily, aircraft. So they are heavier than air and, for example, the balloon does not apply to VTOL aircraft. Therefore, this type of aircraft needs to create traction for himself. According to the method of propulsion they are divided into two main types.
The first are aircraft such as, for example, Yak-38, McDonnell Douglas AV-8 Harrier II and the Lockheed Martin F-35 II. They are equipped with lifting and propulsion engines and a different number of lifting engines. All used for vertical take-off propulsion. If we talk quite simple — a jet of air from a jet engine.
Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II — a fifth-generation fighter with the ability of vertical takeoff/landing
Another type is called VTOL ”convertiplane” and creates thrust for takeoff by the air screws. An example is the Bell V-22 Osprey, well-known to us on the game Half-Life and the movies about the special forces. It looks more like a cargo helicopter, but the main flight carries it like a plane. After takeoff the engines are deflected and create horizontal thrust.
the tiltrotor Bell V-22 Osprey. In flight, he was checking the engines forward and fly like a turbo-propeller aircraft.
The Main advantage of aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing is their increased maneuverability. Conventional aircraft can not hover in the air. With the ability to hang this type opens up new possibilities for exploration.
Second, but probably more important, advantage is the ability to take off and land at the site, which is not much greater than the size of the aircraft. Runway so the planes are not needed. This is especially significant when based on small airfields and on aircraft carriers. It's probably all the benefits that can be called even slightly significant. Turn to the disadvantages.
The Main disadvantage of VTOL aircraft is that they are very difficult to manage. Pilots must be true aces and should have the skills to control these machines. Managing the change in thrust from the vertical to the horizontal direction requires a very high level of training. Especially if we are talking about the carrier landing or manoeuvring in strong winds.
to Manage such a plane during landing can only real ACE!
The biggest difficulty there is when landing. During takeoff it is necessary to raise the plane and start the set speed, and when landing it is necessary to calculate the time to fall when approaching the landing site.
In addition, the risk during takeoff and imagine engines. If one of the engines fails in normal flight, the plane can fly on the second, and even just to plan. At engine failure vertical takeoff/landing, a disaster is inevitable. They do not just happen as with production models and prototypes.
Another disadvantage isgreat fuel consumption vertical takeoff/landing. The motors operate in an evanescent mode to raise the aircraft with full armament. As a result, we get a smaller distance of the flight.
If taking off and landing on the ground, barely exceeding the dimensions of the plane are a definite advantage, the requirements for this site will definitely be a minus. A jet of gas is very strong and hot. Lifting off the ground a few tens of tons, it could literally destroy the asphalt under the plane. It turns out that the advantage of using ”in the field” are offset by requirement to make a normal court surface. By the way, in the real field these planes cannot fly, the dust could damage the engines failed.
In the fifties of the last century, the industry was able to achieve such a level of development of turboprop and turbojet engines that you can think about the aircraft with vertical takeoff/landing.
This was Especially true in the Wake of the transition from fighter jets that could take off and land on unpaved strips, to modern supersonic cars, which needed a strip with a firm covering. Such bands could not be near military action. Of course, it was possible to build these lanes, but the enemy could easily bring them down. In this case, all aircraft on the base would become useless toys. By the way, largely because of military bases with WFP influential countries and have allies in different parts of the world. It is always nice when someone gives the airfield for basing of your aircraft.
These difficulties have forced the military to believe in the prospectivity of the project of the aircraft of a new type. First, this interest was with the military. For civil aviation it was expensive and not very necessary. Therefore, the prototypes or did not work in the series, or remained only on paper. The most famous of them are the Hawker Siddeley HS-141.
So could look passenger VTOL Hawker Siddeley HS-141
Of Course, we have created dozens of prototypes, most of which saw just a few people. They have suffered a crash during the first flight, after which design changes were made and the aircraft has changed beyond recognition.
In mid-1961 technical Committee, NATO announced the requirements to a single fighter-bomber vertical takeoff/landing. This has pushed the industry to create a supersonic VTOL aircraft. According to forecasts, in the 60-70-ies of the troops of the countries members of the Alliance, was to be delivered about 5000 new aircraft.
It is not difficult to guess, for such a tasty piece of the pie the military decided to fight everything. Among the companies that worked on the design of VTOL aircraft were the monsters of their craft, as Messerschmitt, Lockheed, Dassault, Rolls Royce and even the Italian Fiat.
The Main problem of the production of a single aircraft for all NATO countries was that the company designed the aircraft fundamentally different type. Each country had their own vision of what needs to be VTOL — nobody wanted to make concessions and agree on the monopoly of another. This greatly slowed down the project a common plane, and the company continued to design their own planes, which were sometimes very bizarre.
the Prototype aircraft Ryan X-13 Vertijet. The platform was understood, after which the aircraft is not easily took off.
The Engineers even tried to take the standard approach and tried to implement a project, called Ryan X-13 Vertijet. The essence of the plane was that it was hung vertically in front . After that, the engines on maximum thrust was to lift the plane into the air. When I was recruited height of a few meters, he stepped aside from the rope and flew vertically up like a rocket. To stabilize on the wingtips were located gas-jet rudders. For the primary traction and control, including, takeoff, used engine with thrust vectoring.
With the rise of the aircraft are clear, but the landing was a real work of art. The plane even on my fallback was not the chassis. The pilot had put the plane on the tail, then bring it to the rope and, dropping the rod to hang the plane on a special hook in the bow. As the review was very poor, in planting was helped by the ground operator. The dubious scheme... of These aircraft were created only two pieces, and the test flight lasted less than a year. The absurdity of the ideas realized fast enough. Fortunately, both aircraft survived and are in museums of the United States. Was and helical analogs of Ryan X-13 Vertijet, but nothing happened.
The Most successful was the project of multi-purpose aircraft British Aerospace Sea Harrier. You could see him in the movie ”True lies”. It was flying hero Arnold Schwarzenegger. Needless to say that without the training he wouldn't be able to fly?
still from the film «True lies». Hero Arnold Schwarzenegger at the helm of the British See Harrier
The First flight of this aircraft took place on 20 August 1978 and ended operation in may 2016. Total produced 111 aircraft in three versions. It's not much. For example, we can say that multi-role fighter F-16 Fighting Falcon, which took its first flight in 1974, has produced more than 4,600 units and continue to produce.
«Harrier» it was released only 111 pieces. Even the Yak-38 was released in large quantities.
Now in version with vertical takeoff/landing produced the fifth generation fighter F-35 Lightning II. While they produced relatively few, but it is a big bet in and other NATO countries.
There was a program VTOL aircraft in the Soviet Union. Basically she was doing the Yakovlev design Bureau. Development took place in 1960, and the first model was the Yak-36. He looked not very pretty, but as a whole coped with their tasks. These tasks were the research, and they were created only 4 aircraft. They couldn't even raise the slightest serious weight — during a demonstration flight over Domodedovo in 1967 he used the dummy.
bow rod Yak-36 was not an idle decoration. It was the nozzle of the stabilization of the engine.
Really important for the country's aircraft was the Yak-38, which is in the development phase was called the Yak-36M. He was deprived of most of the problems of previous test generation, and for 27 years (1977-2004 years) was the main Soviet and Russian Navy VTOL aircraft. To replace him was to come the Yak-141, but in 2004, the program was shut down.
Handsome Yak-141, which never went into production
More serious developments and mass models of VTOL in our country. The cause is little prospect of such apparatus and the financial difficulties encountered by design offices in the nineties of the last century.
the Yak-38 was much better than its predecessor. Functionality it also was higher.
In our time, the vertical take-off aircraft is not as relevant as before. It became possible thanks to a more developed air defense systems that can protect the runway from destruction by the enemy. In addition, now at the fore the versatility and low radar signature of the aircraft.
VTOL can not provide these needs, but still have high fuel consumption, greater weight and low efficiency of the distribution of weapons. These planes, of course, will not prevent many companies don't want to completely abandon plans for them. Such aircraft has not come yet, or almost passed. Soon learn what is necessary to ”underline”.
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