Tolbachik Volcano is one of the few active on the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Humanity's first experience with the diamonds for at least 3,000 years ago. of Where are the diamonds? Most of them are deep underground, at a depth of about 200 kilometers or more, and then brought to the surface via volcanic magma during the eruptions. However, researchers studying the eruption of the volcano Tolbachik on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia, have discovered small diamonds in 2012-2013, which, as it turned out, was not formed from magma. In addition, they were not like any some diamonds in the world, and their number exceeded a few hundred. Where did these unusual diamonds?
"The easiest" method of obtaining diamond — is to take the carbon and expose it to the huge pressure in the layers of the Earth mantle. Then, the carbon interacts with other species that are found in the mantle, which . Its name they received in honor of one of the most famous and productive diamond mines in the world in Kimberly, South Africa. It is the kimberlites are one of the indigenous sources of diamonds. Then volcanoes raise these rocks closer to the surface, and people are using mines can get access to the diamonds, which later made diamonds.
However, kimberlite eruption in the history of mankind... well, a very long time. The latest known science a similar phenomenon could occur from 10 000 to 20 000 years ago in Tanzania, and the researchers argue, whether it was at all. A common theory suggests that the last eruption of diamonds occurred 30 million years ago where now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. And all the while humanity produces diamonds obtained through these recent eruptions.
So where, then, appeared diamonds in Kamchatka? The easternmost Peninsula of Russia is the area, where the very active Pacific plate. Because of it this place has it starting in Japan and heading North to Kamchatka. In Russia, the highly active volcanoes are Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoi and Bezymianny. It's not quite the places where you expect to find the diamonds formed in the Earth's mantle.
And yet the diamonds were found near the volcano Tolbachik. This Russian volcano has produced one of the largest lava flow eruptions in this century, dropping more than 1/10 cubic kilometers of lava. The eruption explosions occurred, were formed of lava fountains that reached a height of hundreds of meters.
the Eruption of Tolbachik volcano in 2012-13. Photo by NASA.
In who studied the eruption in detail of tiny diamonds which they found in the lava of Tolbachik. These crystals are from 250 to 700 microns (0.7 mm) that generally occur in rocks formed after volcano eruption.
If they originated deep in the mantle, what are the sources of these diamonds?
The Scientists decided to look at the composition of found stones. Surprisingly, the composition of impurities of elements such as nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine and silicon in the diamond, reflect the composition of volcanic gases from the volcano Tolbachik. This suggests that they could be formed from gases released during the eruption.
MicroBlaze, discovered in lava after the eruption on the 2012-13 Tolbachik volcano.
However, these diamonds can be another potential source: people! Can these tiny diamonds are actually be the result of byproducts of the drilling or of the instruments for sampling? No, that ruled out almost immediately. Most diamonds used in industry are synthetic and have a specific isotopic composition of nitrogen. Scientists have studied the isotopic composition of nitrogen at Tolbachinsky diamonds and they were not synthetic. According to them, these diamonds formed naturally from volcanic gases released from the lava.
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Is it Possible? The phenomenon of crystallization under the action of electrical discharges of lightning is not new, and that is, according to the researchers, there were these diamonds. Also, this theory is supported from the fact that the stones are very different from other famous diamonds. They have a different combustion temperatures, a different composition of trace impurities. That is not synthetic stones, but at the same time differing from naturally formed from magma.
If you have already Packed your bags and bought a ticket to Kamchatka to get rich in search of diamonds, donate tickets. Due to its composition and tiny size these diamonds are almost worthless. However, these small crystals shown how strange can be volcanic activity, and diamonds can be formed directly from the gas, no high pressure.
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