May 27, 2020, SpaceX plans to conduct the first manned flight of the spacecraft Crew Dragon, which is to deliver American astronauts to the ISS. Bob Behnke and Doug Hurley will be the first people sent into space aboard a private spacecraft. However, much more important for the space industry the United States that this flight will be the first manned mission on the ship, and the rocket American production in 2011. Yes, the US alone did not send people into space for almost 10 years! It's hard to believe, if you remember, what resources NASA has, but the facts speak for themselves.
All this time the American space Agency bought space on Russian spacecraft Soyuz to send astronauts to the ISS. For each flight (one astronaut there and back) NASA had to pay about $ 85 million with the cost of the flight in $ 5 million. That is sending a space mission of two people will cost around $ 170 million.
Not surprisingly, NASA launched the Commercial Crew program to stimulate development of new spacecraft American production. A joint program of NASA and SpaceX designed just for that purpose.
Rocket astronauts already waiting for the countdown
The Americans had sent into space its astronauts? From 1961 to 1975 the flights were carried out on ships made in the USA — "mercury", "Gemini" and "Apollo". It is precisely in the framework of the mission "Apollo" in 1969 (11-th), the Americans first landed on the moon. And although there are those who claim that man has not set foot on the surface of the satellite, the facts speak otherwise. Since 1981, the US spent 135 manned launches into space on a reusable spacecraft the space Shuttle, and was the mission, during which space simultaneously sent to 8 people. It was a record, it is still possible to send into space a maximum of 3 people.
Yes, in parallel with the "space Shuttle" manned flights was the Soviet Union, and then Russia — first on ships "Vostok" (which went into space the first man, Yuri Gagarin) and "Sunrise", and then on various versions of the "Union". From 1967 to 2019 all kinds of "Union" made in the aggregate 138 flights. And Soyuz, and the space Shuttle sent into space not only Russian and American astronauts, respectively, in different years, the passengers of these ships were Spanish as the astronauts who participated in the program "discovery" STS-95, NASA, and Malaysian, African, and even Korean astronauts who flew various versions of the Union in 2000-ies. Basically, these joint launches were commercial: other countries to buy its astronauts to space in Soyuz and the Shuttle, because they had their own opportunities to bring people into space. Or seen a pressing need.
the Americans held a flight 135 «the Shuttle» before closing the program
21 Jul 2011 landed the latest reusable spacecraft Space Shuttle "Atlantis" and it was the completion of the whole space program "Shuttle". Why? A survey conducted in 2010 (shortly before the closing of the program) calculations, the Space Shuttle program cost the U.S. government about 210 billion dollars. A large part of this amount was disbursed for maintenance of the spacecraft between launches, and fuel. Each flight when it costs about 200-500 million dollars.
The Problem with Shuttle was that with the advancement of technology the cost of launches has not decreased, then, for example, is seeking Elon Musk with his reusable rockets, and increased. Therefore, NASA was easier to buy a place for one astronaut on the Soyuz for $ 85 million than to spend several times more on the development of your own ship.
In Addition to Russia and USA, self-to bring man into space was only to China (who would doubt). The first flight of a manned spacecraft "Shenzhou-5" made China 2003, the third country in the world to independently send a man into space. The preparations went on for almost 40 years! Then, China has carried out several successful manned launches, the latest of which, "Shenzhou-11", was held on 18 November 2016. Then performed a successful docking with the space lab Tiangong-2, and the astronauts could even do some experiments in zero gravity. After 3 years, "the Tiangong-2" has completed its work and made a controlled deorbit. The station was destroyed in the dense layers of the atmosphere.
Now China is preparing to send into orbit . Engineers hope that the station will be able to work for many years and will eventually change the orbit of the ISS, which is in 2024 is expected to complete its work. For this reason, their space station, China will systematically develop by adding new modules — their launches are already planned for the next four years. Technically newthe station will belong to China, but will open its doors for all countries-members of UN, public and private organizations.
Project of the Chinese space station
China is very important because the United States banned the space Agency in China to use the ISS "safety reasons". In 2011, the U.S. Congress banned any cooperation on space programs between the United States and China.
Because of the company's Elon musk has managed to significantly reduce the costs of spaceflight, the United States once again ready to join the space race on their ships. Admittedly, the return it looks spectacular: for example, the astronauts went to the rocket on the brand new Tesla with the logo of NASA.
a Special version of Tesla for NASA astronauts. They all want a car, like an astronaut? Brilliant marketing move
And showed Crew Dragon from the inside out — it looks more like a ship from the movie "interstellar" than usual on many aircraft (which inside looked like a bad nightmare pilot "Concord"). Elon Musk — not only a brilliant businessman but also a great showman, so expect him and the other did not cost.
So Crew Dragon looks like from the inside. Touch screens, solid high-tech, just like in the movie «interstellar»
here's what the inside of one of the generations «Union»
But one thing — to make a bright show, and quite another — send a man into space, which SpaceX never did (and also NASA, 2011). A little over a year ago, a spacecraft from SpaceX Crew Dragon on top of a reusable booster . Inside the ship there were no living people: they were replaced by a mannequin of the main character of a series of science fiction films "Alien" — Ripley. The mission is SpaceX Crew Demo-1 was successful, and the device without any problems docked to the International space station. The successful docking proved that NASA will no longer be dependent on Russian technologies and will be able to deliver astronauts by using SpaceX. The device is able to work autonomously and is equipped with a life support system, but also equipped with a manual control panel, so that when problems occur, the pilots were able to take control in their hands.
the docking of the Crew Dragon to ISS without a crew. March 2, 2019
To do this, SpaceX had a lot of problems with this aircraft that the company was able to eliminate to launch to the ISS in 2019. But after that the problem is not over. So, in a month during testing of the engines of the spacecraft Crew Dragon happened "anomaly" — as it is dubbed by the company itself. During the countdown, and burning engines the ship took off. Later, the company conducted an investigation and found that . There is a valve, which is responsible for the admission of helium to the side fuel tanks. Usually it works like a clock, but in that time started to function incorrectly: valve made a u-turn, from-for what fuel was in the tank with helium. This error was later rectified, but where is the guarantee that some other problem will emerge during the countdown before the flight on may 27?
Later, SpaceX has revealed yet another problem — for a soft return of the ship to the Ground. The SpaceX team wanted to make sure that the system is secure fit Crew Dragon will be able to provide a soft landing even in case of failure of one of the four parachutes. They deliberately ruined one of the parachutes and dropped the capsule from a great height, but the other three parachute simply does not open. Not good news, because American astronauts who will fly to the ISS on this ship must return to Earth via a capsule.
You Can continue to consider crash Crew Dragon and build negative scenarios. But we cannot deny the fact that Elon musk and his team managed to make the ship and the missile, which can carry out a mission with people in the space of just a few years! And with the cost of this launch will be much lower than the space Shuttle. If all goes well, the SpaceX mission will be a historic event as it not only will become the first private commercial company that will take people into space (Richard Branson and Jeff Bezos are already nervously Smoking in California), but also returns US to the "space arena" — literally and figuratively.
How will the flight Crew Dragon on stages
The favorable outcome from SpaceX and NASA have all chances to bypass the "Union" and open a new era of space flight. Not only that, it looks like a fantastic movie, and the Falcon 9 rocket will come back as soon as the lead Crew Dragon to the desired height. We are waiting for this cosmic revolution! Not to miss it, subscribe to us .
American astronauts Hurley and Behnken who will fly to the ISS aboard a Crew Dragon
We, like most readers , can only hold your breath: the first 10 years of launching astronauts to the ISS, which will be held in the USA, scheduled for may 27 at 16:32 (23:32 Moscow time) from the launch pad at the space center Kennedy. American astronauts Hurley and Behnken —veterans of space flights, both started out as military pilots, and in 2000 became NASA astronauts. After the closure of the "Shuttle" they both flew to the ISS on Soyuz rockets from the Russian cosmonauts. For SpaceX it will be the first manned mission since inception 18 years ago. The mission of the crew aboard the Crew Dragon will be the final test flight for SpaceX before the company will be certified for regular missions of NASA.
This is a big step for SpaceX, but even larger — for NASA and all of America
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