did you know that mushrooms absorb food across its surface like plants? However, like us, they get energy by consuming other forms of life, and not by photosynthesis.
What do you know about mushrooms? In fact, we are faced with the representatives of the «the third Kingdom of nature» more often than you might think. Every time you see on products mould, drinking a cool brew, you feel an itch after a mosquito bite or getting an injection of antibiotics, are you seeing mushrooms or direct results of their activities. Since ancient times, people felt that fungi differ from plants and animals, they are considered as something otherworldly, associated with the underworld. Today we know that mushrooms are an integral part of Earth's ecosystems, but they differ from other living organisms. Moreover, scientists believe that mushrooms can save the world. But how?
Before you can understand why some researchers call mushrooms «saviors of the planet» let's remember the lessons of biology. Fungi, like plants and animals, have three forms of reproduction: vegetative (e.g., slices of mushroom), asexual and sexual. This is important, as it is for methods of sexual reproduction, scientists divide fungi into classes. But sexual reproduction of fungi is a very complex question that cannot be fully addressed in a small article, so we will tell you the most basic facts.the
Researchers distinguish three classes of fungi: the
by the Way, the mushrooms – it's pretty «heavy» food
This may seem surprising, but some fungi have generally no sexual reproduction or it is so complex and hidden from the eyes of researchers until it was found. These mushrooms are usually attributed to the category «imperfect fungi». this includes the famous Penicillium, of which, incidentally, is made of not only antibiotics, but also cheeses such as «Camembert» and «cheese». It also includes imperfect fungi of the genus Aspergillus, that affect mainly the bindings of books and paintings. However, human ingenuity has no limits and in Japan with Aspergillus cook a rice vodka – sake. The same applies to soy sauce.
Even among the representatives of the class of imperfect fungi are soil fungi. Some of them are carnivorous and prey on worms, nematodes, and even among these fungi meet the dangerous parasites of plants and animals, for example, the fungus Cordyceps is one-sided, the details of which or rice Helminthosporium, which has caused mass starvation in India in 1943, destroying rice crops. In General, the class of imperfect fungi can have a devastating, catastrophic impact on human life.
The Second class are marsupials mushrooms, which includes a third of the entire mushroom Kingdom. To marsupials include morels, lines, truffles, most yeasts and many parasites, too much without them. The result of the sexual process, the representatives of this class formed «bag» with eight spores inside the bag, hence its name. When the bag bursts, the spores scatter in different directions like balls, sometimes on two feet. It is noteworthy that each of the fungus thousands and even millions of bags.
Birch, as well as the orange-cap boletus, Russula, mushrooms and many others belong to the class of basidiomycetes.
The Third and last class of fungi is basidiomycetes, which include all your favorite white mushrooms, boletus, boletus, champignon, Russula, and others. In the result of sexual reproduction in these fungi are formed, not bags, and the basidium with spores. Basidium can be compared with the inflated glove with two-four fingers. On the tips «finger» attached spores which come off the gloves after ripening. But if some mushrooms are parasites truly dangerous, why researchers believe that using mushrooms can save the planet?
Article publications Discover about Paul Stamets American mycologist and the entrepreneur who sells various mushroom products and promotes the use of medicinal mushrooms in medicine. In his book, 2005, under the title «mycelium Running: how mushrooms can help us save the world», Stamets writes: «Fungi that produce mushrooms can significantly change game play in such disparate fields as medicine, forestry, pesticides and pollution of the environment.» He spent the last 25 years preaching it to anyone who is willing to listen.
As poetic As weird or didn't look the activities of Stamets, his idea that mushrooms connect the human immune system and the environment, based on solid biology, because evolutionary tree of the animal Kingdom and the Kingdom of mushrooms sprout from the same branch. Anyway, mushrooms miraculously tie together the life of plants, animals and the Earth itself. There are about 1.5 million species of fungi, including yeasts and molds, as well asproducing mushrooms macrofungi. All of these organisms – which we described above – have in common with animals basic features: they inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide, and they are susceptible to many microbes, to which susceptible people.
Paul Stamets guest Joe Rogan. Private campaign Stamets Fungi Perfecti sells gourmet and medicinal mushrooms (along with growing kits, mushroom supplements and related fungi books and knickknacks) by mail and in health food stores.
When fungi colonized Land a billion years ago, some of them occupied the niche of the great decomposers of the earth — and this is the real key to creating soil. Mycelium fungi secrete enzymes and acids that turn rock into biologically accessible minerals and unravel the long chain molecules of organic matter into digestible form. Fungal mycelium hold the soil together, help it retain water and nutrients available for vegetation. Recall that mycelium is the vegetative body of fungi, which consists of thin, branched filaments, called hyphae.
When Stamets cultivated mould in his laboratory, a white circle of mycelium spread on a Petri dish; he was soon covered with green spores. The researcher moved the pieces of mold on other food, where they multiply for several generations. In the end, the white stripes appeared among the green in one dish, where the mycelium (possibly due to the damaged gene) lagged behind in the production of spores. Then he took a piece of white material and cultivated it for many generations, resulting in a cycle of sporulation was delayed for several days or longer.
Mushrooms is not only a delicious dish.
This is, as he says Stamets will allow you to get rid of such insects as ants and other pests: having infected with this type of mold, for example, rice grains. Due deferred the formation of spores, the insect that ate the grain will die after a few. After all insects die, probably the smell of their musty bodies will warn the others of danger. Further testing showed that other strains of mold M. anisopliae and Beauvaria bassiana, can also be modified to attract and subsequent destruction of a wide spectrum of insects. Similarly, many types of mold and other results of the activity of fungi may be useful for health and used as fertilizer for the soil, which threatens destruction. Read more –
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