Fixed the physics of quantum noise in the LIGO lab – what you need to know?

Date:

2020-07-15 13:40:11

Views:

154

Rating:

1Like 0Dislike

Share:

Fixed the physics of quantum noise in the LIGO lab – what you need to know?

Thanks to the work of the laboratories LIGO, VIRGO scientists have been able to detect gravitational waves

Researchers from the LIGO project demonstrated how the hyperfine tuning of the devices allows them to push the boundaries of the fundamental laws of physics. Laser-interferometric gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detects gravitational waves arising from catastrophic events in the Universe such as mergers of neutron stars and black holes. These spatio-temporal fluctuations allow scientists to observe the gravitational effects in extreme conditions and to explore fundamental questions about the Universe and its history. Recently, scientists have recorded the motion of a massive object — mirror detector — under the influence of quantum effects. But what does this mean?

What is quantum noise?

Recently, physicists were able to measure the shift of the huge mirrors of the LIGO detector, weighing up to forty pounds. Recall that in the international includes about 40 research institutes, and the analysis of data coming from the detector and other observatories, employs more than 600 scientists. The main objective is the detection of LIGO and the detection of gravitational waves of cosmic origin that were first predicted by albert Einstein in the General theory of relativity (gr) in 1916.

As shown by the results of a study published in the journal of the 40 kg LIGO mirror can move in response to tiny quantum effects, called a quantum noise. In physics, quantum noise refers to the uncertainty of the physical quantity due to its quantum origin. In General, quantum noise is a fundamental quantum laws: the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg, according to which some physical quantities cannot be absolutely exact values.

Improving tools and instruments for LIGO in the future will open many secrets of the Universe

In simple words, some values cannot be measured, because the physical laws do not permit. In practice, this means that any measuring device is quantum noise, which is so small that it gets lost in the larger noise, and it cannot be eliminated. However, physicists managed to measure the tiny shift coronarographies mirrors of the LIGO detector. To better understand what is happening, imagine that the fixed shift several times smaller than the hydrogen atom. But why this fixed «a quantum shudder» important for modern science?

How does LIGO?

As the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle States that with absolute precision to measure a few physical quantities is impossible, uncertainty, nevertheless, it is possible to reduce one of them, while increasing in the other. Did physics in the study – they reduce the quantum noise and checked, do not change the total noise from all sources and, if so, how. For this they used a special instrument with which to measure the contribution of quantum noise to the displacement of the LIGO mirrors.

Recall that at the core of the LIGO detectors are laser interferometers of kilometer scale, which measure the distance between a 40-pound hanging mirrors with the best precision ever achieved. An unprecedented level of sensitivity of the LIGO is achieved through the most modern equipment, necessary to suppress vibration and thermal noise in the detectors. It is on these levels of sensitivity comes into play in quantum mechanics: the researchers used light pressure on the mirrors and the number of photons in the laser beam. The importance here is the position of the mirrors, since only the first two values have an impact on them.

Project LIGO was proposed in 1992 by Kip Thorne, Ronald Drever of Caltech and Rainer Weiss of Massachusetts Institute of technology.

Thus, the researchers were able to prove that LIGO quantum noise is uncertainty in the light pressure. All of the above means that at the site LIGO physicists were able to look below the so-called standard quantum limit the limit, when the measurements are used only natural quantum state.

Were used In the experiment non-classical «squeezed light», which reduces the quantum fluctuations of the laser field. Just a few years ago this type of quantum behavior would be too weak to be observed. But new methods of measurement allow to broaden the horizons of physics, and future enhancements and modernization of tools will improve the sensitivity of existing devices. This means that in the future we will be able to create a gravitational wave of technology that will allow more details to penetrate the space-time and open . So we can have a series of exciting scientific discoveries.

Recommended

An air leak site has been found on the ISS. What's next?

An air leak site has been found on the ISS. What's next?

Air leak occurs in Russian station module Inside the International Space Station live astronauts from different countries and all of them need oxygen. The air needed for the life of the crew is produced by special equipment, but the tightness of the ...

Why can thinking about death make life happier?

Why can thinking about death make life happier?

Awareness of one's own mortality can be a liberating and awakening experience How do you feel about the idea of death? How often do you think about it and what emotions do you feel? Many of us have been pondering these questions lately. The pandemic ...

A new photo of Jupiter has found a new spot. What's it?

A new photo of Jupiter has found a new spot. What's it?

New photo of Jupiter taken by the Hubble Telescope Jupiter is considered the largest planet in the solar system. It mainly consists of a huge amount of hydrogen and helium, so it has a much lower density than many other planets. Most of all, Jupiter ...

Comments (0)

This article has no comment, be the first!

Add comment

Related News

The most dangerous island in the Land: diseases, snakes, and natives with spears

The most dangerous island in the Land: diseases, snakes, and natives with spears

In the world, there are Islands that are better not to meddle. According to scientists, our planet is more than 500 thousand Islands. Most of them are located in close proximity to Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Norway and oth...

When was founded the oldest company in the world?

When was founded the oldest company in the world?

still from the TV series "the Office." Today, one of the most recognizable companies are Apple, Google and Microsoft. First firm produces popular smartphones, the second created the well-known search system, and the third develope...

The most unusual theory of the origin of life

The most unusual theory of the origin of life

There are several theories of the origin of life on our planet. Life on Earth began over 3 billion years ago, over time evolved from simple microbes to incredibly complex organisms. But as life on our planet originated from «...